Starting your own business from scratch is not as difficult as it seems, however, most start-up entrepreneurs do not know exactly where to start and what area of business to choose. Even in a crisis, you can find and implement a profitable strategy. Thus, the current economic situation, which caused a decrease in the share of imported goods in the domestic market and their strong appreciation, provides good opportunities for a new undertaking. In our review we will talk about how to start a small business and what business strategies will be potentially profitable in 2018.
What business to start: choose a direction
What criteria should be used when choosing a niche for business development from scratch?First of all, it is necessary to build on the knowledge and experience that you personally have, or at least your interests. Secondly, it is important to determine the geolocation – a metropolis, a regional city or a small settlement. Thirdly, it is worth thinking about the “sex” of belonging – there are areas of business that are purely masculine and particularly feminine.In addition, do not forget about online technology – a modern business can be conducted both offline and online.
For example, a typical business option from scratch for men that does not require exorbitant investments is an automobile workshop or car wash, repair and adjustment of computers and telephones, and the husband for an hour category service. Women, in turn, can open an agency to provide cleaning services, housekeeping services or babysitter, organize a manicure studio at home, make cakes and pastries to order. The services of hairdressers and tailors are always relevant.
When choosing a niche, it is worth knowing that the business is mainly divided into 3 areas – production, trade and services. Choose what is closer to you. Also find out what income you plan to earn.
Government Resolution No. 265 of April 4, 2016 defines the values of permissible annual income:
- microenterprises – 120 million rubles;
- small businesses – 800 million rubles;
- medium enterprises – 2 billion rubles.
In this article, we will consider micro-enterprises and small businesses as the most affordable option for start-up entrepreneurs.
What statistics say: effective business strategies in 2017–2018
According to the Forbes financial and economic magazine rating, the top 10 most profitable and promising segments of small businesses are:
- private auditors;
- manual therapists;
- specialized clinics;
- accounting services;
- services of dentists and orthodontists;
- tax calculations;
- legal services;
- small business loans;
- private financial managers (traders).
By the way, all of the above types of business do not lose their relevance in times of crisis, and small lending to enterprises and trading in stock trading became particularly relevant during the period of economic turbulence.
How to start a business: first steps to success
So, after choosing a niche for starting a business from scratch, the stage of creating a business plan begins. It can be made independently, and in the absence of due knowledge and skills it makes sense to ask for help the consultant. A business plan can be written in any form, but must contain the following (real, not fancy) information:
- Characteristics of products or services (evaluation of strengths and weaknesses). Market research (supply and demand).
- Forecast of production and sales of goods and services.
- Requirements for financing, raw materials, equipment, personnel, office and warehouse.
- Marketing strategy and pricing.
- The organizational structure of the enterprise.
- Financial plan (forecast of income and expenses, “cash flo”).
When starting a business from scratch, the question of financing remains central. In general, this problem has only a few solutions. The simplest is to open at the expense of own accumulated funds. In the absence of such, you can get a loan in the bank. Finally, find investors for your project. However, this option is relevant, rather, for medium and large businesses (unless, of course, the spouse or another close relative or comrade acts in the person of the investor).
So, when all the preparations are completed, you can proceed to the registration of the company.
Choice of legal form
The most common forms of business organization are:
- PI (individual entrepreneur) – organizational and legal form for the activities of individuals, which does not involve registration of legal entity. It is the simplest: for SP there is no need to maintain accounting and tax reporting. All that is needed is the drawing up of a personal income statement. At the same time, an individual entrepreneur has the right to hire workers.
- Ltd. (limited liability company) – the legal form for the activities of legal entities. In this case, the authorized capital of the company is divided into shares, and the participants are liable only within their shares.
- JSC (joint stock company) – involves the integration of several persons or companies, each of which makes contributions to the authorized capital of the company. The authorized capital is divided into a certain number of shares, the amount of which sets the limit on the liability of each partner. At the same time, shares cannot be transferred to third parties without the consent of other shareholders. The charter may provide for special provisions governing the transfer of shares by various means, in various forms. The procedure for opening a joint-stock company is more complicated than an LLC, since it involves registering a share issue no later than the first month from the date of the state registration of the joint-stock company.
Choice of taxation system
At present, there are 5 tax regimes for small enterprises in Russia, so the choice of a taxation system is extremely important.
- The general taxation system is not particularly beneficial for start-up businesses. It requires full accounting, as well as all general taxes: income tax – 20%, VAT – 18%, property tax (if any), etc. Any new business is included in the general tax system by default, if only the tax authorities have not submitted the necessary documents for the provision of the simplified taxation system (STS).
- Simplified tax system – the most common and convenient when starting a business from scratch. It involves the payment of one tax – the simplified tax system once a quarter. Reporting is done once a year. Tax can be paid from income (rate – from 1 to 6%) or from the amount
income minus expenses (rate – from 5 to 15%). In the first option, the amount of income can be reduced for insurance premiums, so IE without employees can reduce this tax by 100%.